It"s the dead of winter, and there"s no better time for a refreshing and relaxing cruise. Let the kids enjoy rock climbing, surfing, zip lining, ice skating and swimming while you savor crisp blue skies, warm sea mists and wine coolers on your balcony as you cuddle together and scan the white-caps for a glimpse of an acrobatic whale. A lush buffet dinner awaits you all in a couple of hours; until then, there are many options for fun on your personal vacation menu. Unfortunately, although a cruise ship may seem like a getaway from daily life and its stressors, potential dangers lurk in every passageway and on every promenade.
《公海上的不安全》(safe on the公海)一书的作者、迈阿密海上巡线律师查尔斯•利普肯(Charles Lipcon)说，人们认为游轮是一个安全的茧，因此会产生一种过度自信的感觉。他们的天线被关掉了。但是游轮就像一个大城市。你会让你15岁的孩子在凌晨2点独自绕着纽约市跑吗?据报道，每年都有数十起船只性侵事件发生，而且只有训练不足或不合格的巡线安全警卫是案件发生后的唯一调查人员
People assume that a cruise ship is a safe cocoon and get a sense of overconfidence,” says Charles Lipcon, a cruise-line maritime attorney in Miami and author of “Unsafe on the High Seas.” “Their ‘antennas’ get turned off. But a cruise ship is like a big city. Would you let your 15-year-old run around New York City alone at 2 a.m.?” Lipcon’s cases have included gang rapes of young girls and date-rape drug use. Reported sexual assaults on ships number in the dozens each year, and poorly trained or unqualified cruise-line security guards are often the only investigators after a crime has occurred.
"Passengers think they’re in the United States, but they’re in the country of the vessel’s flag and under that country’s laws,” Lipcon adds. The FBI does have jurisdiction over crimes upon American citizens “on the high seas,” but it often has no evidence to work with. Cruise-line personnel, Lipcon says, typically “make no effort to preserve the crime scene. They vacuum the room and steam-clean the sheets.” The result: Many perpetrators remain unidentified – and unprosecuted.
采取预防措施对于保持游轮安全至关重要 - 同时也要保持健康。 “但健康的旅行者都身处在物质过剩的环境，”加利福尼亚州北岭的注册营养师艾伦鲍斯菲尔德说。 “随时供应的自助餐有数百种食品 - 大多数都含有高脂肪，盐和糖。当然商家是好意，但是许多游客也会暴饮暴食。“
Taking precautions is important to stay safe on a cruise — but also to stay healthy. “But health-conscious travellers face an environment filled with excess,” says Ellen Bauersfeld, a registered dietitian in Northridge, California. “24/7 meals, hundreds of items on a buffet line — most of which are high in fat, salt and sugar. Even with good intentions, many fall prey to overeating.
“不健康的食物引发大脑化学成瘾的变化。”鲍尔斯费尔德补充道：”最近的研究揭示了糖在我们的大脑中产生的多巴胺峰值。多巴胺是一种让人感觉良好的激素，会影响我们身体中“奖励”感官，有点像药物。不幸的是，在我们吃东西时感觉很好，这就是医学博士David Kessler在他的书“暴饮暴食的结束”中所说的那样 - 我们想要越来越多。“此外，鲍尔斯费尔德警告说，”混合游轮上有丰富的特色饮品。它们不仅热量高，而且在喝了几杯酒之后，控制自己的冲动和做出好的食物选择变得更具挑战性。“
”Unhealthy foods trigger addictive changes in brain chemistry, Bauersfeld explains, adding: “Recent research has revealed the dopamine spike that sugar creates in our brains. Dopamine is a feel-good hormone that affects our reward/pleasure center a little like a drug. Unfortunately, it only feels good while we’re eating, which is why – as David Kessler, M.D., reported in his book, “The End of Overeating” — we want more and more and more.” Additionally, Bauersfeld warns, “Mixed speciality drinks are in abundance on cruise ships. Not only are they high in calories, but, after a few drinks, impulse control and making good food choices become more challenging.”
食物中毒和诺如病毒美国疾病控制中心（CDC）估计，食物中毒每年影响六分之一的美国人。 “食物中毒的症状包括发烧，腹痛，恶心，呕吐和腹泻，”Samia Boctor博士(他拥有美国热带医学和卫生学会的旅行者健康证书)说。 “如果旅行者食用受污染的食物或水或接触被粪便或呕吐物污染的表面，他们可能会感染沙门氏菌，志贺氏菌或大肠杆菌。诺如病毒需要特别提及。这些菌株引起严重的爆发，可以将旅行者送进往医院。“
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that food poisoning affects about one in six Americans each year. “Symptoms of food poisoning include fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea,” says Dr. Samia Boctor, who has a certification in travelers’ health from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. “If travelers consume contaminated food or water or touch surfaces contaminated by fecal material or vomitus, they can get infections with salmonella, shigella or E. coli. And norovirus needs special mention. These strains cause severe outbreaks that can send travellers to the hospital.”
据疾病预防控制中心称，游轮上超过90％的腹泻爆发是由诺如病毒引起的。 2014年，通过疾病预防控制中心的船舶卫生计划报告了9起诺罗病毒爆发。 “诺如病毒很容易传播，特别是在拥挤的环境中，”Boctor警告说，“即使是与生病的人分享的食物或使用过的餐具也会导致传染。”
According to the CDC, more than 90 percent of outbreaks of diarrhea on cruise ships are caused by norovirus. In 2014, nine norovirus outbreaks were reported through the CDC’s Vessel Sanitation Program. “Norovirus is easily spread, especially in crowded environments,” Boctor warns, “even by sharing food or eating utensils with someone who is ill.”
Mechanical difficulties and fires on cruise ships have made headlines; thousands of passengers have been stranded for hours or even days at sea, often without power to support effective refrigeration, food preparation or sewage disposal. Backed-up toilets and leaking human waste can easily spread infections such as E. coli or norovirus. “Because of multiple routes of transmission, it is difficult to contain outbreaks,” Boctor says.
To reduce the risk of infections, Boctor advises that “special attention should be taken while removing vomitus and fecal material; surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected, and cleaners should be wearing protective equipment including, gloves, masks and gowns.” Norovirus can be resistant to common disinfectants. The CDC recommends that cruise-ship passengers wash their hands with anti-bacterial soap after using the toilet and before eating or drinking, in order to prevent the spread of bacteria and viruses.
The ship’s infirmary may be staffed by an earnest health-care provider in a starched white coat, but there’s no guarantee that the “doctor” on duty is licensed to practice medicine in the United States — or anywhere at all.
“Historically, doctors were signed up to work for three to six months at a time, paid a salary and part of the proceeds of what was sold in the ships’ infirmaries,” attorney Lipcon says, “and they could be licensed anywhere, including in the country of the ship’s flag. The cruise line is not responsible for bad medical care as long as they hire a qualified physician.” Lipcon has even seen cases where the ship’s doctor didn’t have a license but was “just a graduate of a medical school in the Dominican Republic.”
We’ve all heard that it’s important to wear sunscreen outdoors, especially during the peak sunlight hours between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. Dr. Ramin Ram of Beverly Hills, Calif., a fellow of the American Academy of Dermatology, says: “UV rays are what cause skin damage and burning, not the sun’s heat. Unfortunately, you’re exposed to UV rays even during cloudy and cooler days. Sunburns are associated with higher risks of melanoma, which can be fatal if not detected and treated in its early stages.”
Diving into the pool doesn’t protect you. “Although a cold pool or seawater may soothe the skin,” Ram says, “its ability to reflect the UV radiation can even double the initial amount of direct UV light your skin receives. It gets worse when you are near sandy beaches, since the sand also may reflect UV light, even while you are under the water.”
Ram suggests “aggressive and generous applications of water-resistant sunblock reapplied every two hours and after the skin gets wet.” Ram also recommends wearing clothing with SPF protection “while you are in the water, which may significantly decrease your exposure to the UV light.”
天空作美的时候，游轮可能会很愉快，但是当一艘船受到风暴袭击时，安静的海上航行很快就会变成一场噩梦。纽芬兰纪念大学(Memorial University of Newfoundland)教授、CruiseJunkie.com网站创始人罗斯凯文报道，风暴可能导致，包括船体面板分离、阳台栏杆被破坏、沉重的家具(如桌子和电视机)在船舱和更大的房间或甲板上被抛来抛去，从而增加了受伤的可能性。
Cruises may be pleasant when the weather cooperates, but a quiet sea voyage can quickly turn into a nightmare when a ship is battered by a storm. Ross Klein, a professor at the Memorial University of Newfoundland and publisher of the website CruiseJunkie.com, cites multiple reports of winds over 50 knots causing ships to buck and list. Damage reported includes separation of ship panels, destruction of balcony railings and tossing of heavy furniture such as tables and TV sets across cabins and larger rooms or decks, making injuries more likely.
恶劣的天气也会使乘客晕船有恶心，呕吐和头晕。 “如果你晕船，请在出行前咨询医生，了解预防症状的方法，”Boctor说。 “有非处方药和处方药可能对你有所帮助，但大多数可以让你昏昏欲睡，如果你喝酒，就不应该使用它们。”
Rough weather also can make passengers seasick, with nausea, vomiting and dizziness. “If you get seasick, talk to your doctor before your trip about ways to prevent symptoms,” Boctor says. “There are over-the-counter and prescription medicines that might help you, though most can make you sleepy and you shouldn’t use them if you’re drinking alcoho
Retreating to your bed is always an option if you’re under the weather. But uncomfortable mattresses are among the top five cruise complaints, Lipcon reports.
更糟糕的是，床上不受欢迎的客人，如臭虫，可能会毁了你的海上旅行 - 并且可以跟着你回家。臭虫是昆虫寄生虫，可以长到四分之一英寸长，白天在床垫接缝，床架和床头板的睡眠区附近隐藏，甚至在干净和豪华的环境中也能找到。 “臭虫不会传播疾病，”Boctor说，“但是他们的叮咬会导致不适，刺激和过敏反应，导致瘙痒，过度刮伤和皮肤感染 - 并导致睡眠中断。”
Even worse, unwanted guests in your bed, such as bedbugs, can ruin your trip at sea — and can follow you home. Bedbugs are insect parasites that can grow to a quarter-inch long, hide during the day near sleeping areas in mattress seams, bedframes and headboards, and are found even in clean and luxurious environments. “Bedbugs don’t transmit disease,” Boctor says, “but their bites can cause discomfort, irritation and allergic reactions that can lead to itching, excessive scratching and skin infections — and disrupted sleep.”
Allergic reactions can also be triggered by dust and mold. Mold micro-organisms and fungi grow in moist environments and on wet surfaces. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, molds produce substances that can commonly cause allergic reactions, as well as irritants and toxins. Allergy symptoms include sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, skin rashes and asthma attacks. Allergic individuals may also react to dust mites and to fabrics and other components of pillows and mattresses. Avoiding these allergens is the best way to prevent symptoms, but antihistamines and prescription medications may reduce symptoms if environmental controls are not possible.
Cruises are filled with social activities in a party atmosphere, but not everyone feels like the life of the party. “Even in the confined space of a cruise ship, surrounded by people determined to connect and have fun, a passenger might still feel lonely, isolated and downhearted,” says clinical psychologist Anthony Johnson. “We constantly compare ourselves. A downhearted person might conclude, ‘I can"t talk to people. I can"t even have fun. I"m not like others. I can"t do anything right. Why go on?’" Mental health challenges such as depression can be exacerbated by loneliness and social isolation aboard ship, as well as by the absence of counselling resources and social safety nets. Klein s CruiseJunkie.com reports that 22 cruise-ship passengers went overboard in 2014 including a number of alleged or observed suicides.
As an experienced maritime attorney, Lipcon has dealt with many cases of accidents, sexual assaults, missing people and infections, but he acknowledges that 12 million people take cruises every year and that, fortunately, most have a wonderful time.
“Cruise Junkie” Klein concurs, advising cautious travellers to “treat a cruise ship as any large city. Don"t assume safety and security. Wash your hands frequently, avoid uncooked and undercooked foods if possible, and take caution with drinking water. Use bottled water if you want to be entirely safe.”
Other tips for a safe cruise, Klein says, include having all of your prescription medications with you, and enough for the entire cruise. “Also, be prepared to give a medical history in case there is [an] emergency requiring medical intervention. Have your medical insurance information with you; buying trip medical insurance is a good idea.“
带上防晒霜并使用它，不要忘记喝大量的水......并避免过度放纵酒精，脂肪和高热量食物; 这样防止变胖，据统计在一周的邮轮巡航假期中，乘客平均增加7磅或更多。 “Lipcon补充道：”请在登上邮轮时， 也需要有一些安全常识。“
Bring sun block and use it, and don"t forget to drink lots of water … and avoid overindulgence of alcohol, and of fatty and high-caloric foods; the average passenger gains seven pounds or more on a one-week cruise. ”The best advice for sea travellers, Lipcon adds: “Don’t leave your common sense behind when you board.”想买3C数码产品怎么办？赶紧在百度搜索 无忧岛资讯 百家号，各种精品数码产品等你发现~